• Welding Imperfections - MarineWiki

    Jan 04, 2011· A shrinkage cavity at the end of the weld run. The main cause is the shrinkage during solidification. Solid Inclusions. Solid foreign substances entrapped in the weld metal is called solid inclusion. These can be the following types: Slag inclusion Flux inclusion Oxide inclusion Metallic inclusion

  • Slag inclusion formation during solidification of steel ...

    Slag inclusion formation during solidification of steel alloys and in cast iron ... This thesis explores the formation of segregation and inclusions during solidification of steel and cast iron. ... Microstructure studies by aid of SEM and micro-probe measurements are analysed to find at what point during solidification process the inclusions ...

  • Hydrothermal solidification of blast furnace slag by ...

    Blast furnace water-cooled slag (BFWS) has been solidified using a hydrothermal processing method, in which the BFWS could be solidified in an autoclave under saturated steam pressure (1.56 MPa) at 200 °C for 12 h by the additions of quartz or coal flyash.

  • Thermodynamic Evaluation of Inclusion Formation during ...

    (2012). Thermodynamic Evaluation of Inclusion Formation during Cooling and Solidification of Low Carbon Si-Mn Killed Steel. Materials and Manufacturing Processes: Vol. 27, No. 9, pp. 925-929.

  • Thermodynamic Evaluation of Inclusions Formation and ...

    Apr 23, 2010· Inclusions formation and transformation are simulated by thermodynamic calculations in the steel/inclusions/slag system taking into account the solidification phenomena. In this paper inclusions in Si/Mn‐deoxidised steel and Al‐deoxidised Ca‐treated steels are contributed. Calculations are compared with experimental results from steel plants.

  • Non-metallic inclusions in steel [SubsTech]

    May 31, 2012· There are three stages of inclusions formation: 1. NucleationAt this stage nuclei of new phase are formed as a result of supersaturation of the solution (liquid or solid steel) with the solutes (eg. Al and O) due to dissolution of the additives (deoxidation or desulfurization reagents) or …

  • The Effect of Trace Elements on the Formation of Slag Spots ...

    SEMI Stainless Steel TF Meeting July 14, 2003 – San Francisco, CA 4 1.3 Mechanism of slag spot formation If the steel is melted again, e.g. during welding, slag forming compounds can accumulate together and precipitate on the weld seam as visible spot. Number and appearance of slags

  • Evolution of Different Inclusions during Ladle Treatment ...

    2.2. Investigation of Inclusions and Clusters. Based on the study of O. T. Ericsson, 31) the cooling rate of the 12 mm thickness lollipop sampler is 20–25°C/s for a 316L stainless steel. The secondary inclusions, which formed during fast cooling and solidification, would precipitate homogenously and have separate peaks in the particle size distribution.

  • INCLUSIONS IN CONTINUOUS CASTING OF STEEL

    2) Precipitated inclusions form during cooling and solidification of the steel 10, 33, 53-59) During cooling, the concentration of dissolved oxygen/nitrogen/sulfur in the liquid becomes larger while the solubility of those elements decreases. Thus inclusions such as alumina59), silica, AlN54), and 5 sulphide precipitate.

  • Introduction for Electroslag Steel- TJC STEEL.

    Electroslag (melting casting) is a kind of secondary refining technology, which is a comprehensive metallurgical casting process combining secondary refining of molten steel with directional solidification.The principle is that the current [TJC STEEL]passes through the liquid slag pool slag heat resistance, the metal electrode melts, the molten metal collects into the molten drop, drops ...

  • Deoxidation and inclusion control - SlideShare

    Sep 17, 2015· • At the end of refining, a considerable amount of oxygen ( 0.05-0.10% ) is left in liquid steel. • The solid solubility of oxygen in pure iron is only 0.003%. 3. • If a steel with 0.05% oxygen is cast, the excess oxygen is evolved in the form of gases leading to blowholes and non metallic inclusions .

  • THE INS AND OUTS OF WELDING SLAG - WeldingMania

    Slag inclusion is also the reason why you can not manipulate the 6013 or 7018 rods as much as you can 6010 or 6011. This is also the reason why you can not weld vertical up with some rods. The formation of slag inclusions will weaken the weld. Furthermore, it can reduce the life of the weld by giving way to corrosions in the weld joint. The ...

  • Slag Inclusion - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

    Slag inclusions are nonmetallic particles trapped in the weld metal or at the weld interface. Slag inclusions result from faulty welding technique, improper access to the joint, or both. Sharp notches in joint boundaries or between weld passes promote slag entrapment.

  • Non-metallic inclusions in steel [SubsTech]

    May 31, 2012· There are three stages of inclusions formation: 1. Nucleation At this stage nuclei of new phase are formed as a result of supersaturation of the solution (liquid or solid steel) with the solutes (eg. Al and O) due to dissolution of the additives (deoxidation or desulfurization reagents) or …

  • Interaction between Molten Steel and Runner Materials ...

    inclusions while they were still liquid. These inclusions are entrained runner slag. Slag inclusions remain in a liquid state while the steel solidifies. Thus, they can be pushed by the growing dendrite tips, to coagulate and collect at the last place to freeze near the runner center, where macroporosity (voids) are also common.

  • Slag-Inclusion-Formation-During-Solidification-of-Steel ...

    During solidification of steel ingots and stra nd compositional variations referred to as macrosegregation range in scale from several millimetres to centimetres or even metres. The in-homogenous distribution of alloy el ements have a detrimental impact on the following processing behaviour and the material properties and can lead to rejection of cast components or processed …

  • The Application of an Effective Equilibrium Reaction Zone ...

    The database also contains the most important metallic and non-metallic solid phases, allowing the calculation of inclusion formation, inclusion modification, steel solidification, slag solidification, steel–refractory reactions, slag–refractory reactions, and steel–mould powder reactions.

  • Effect of slag control on steel process optimization and ...

    Figure 1: Masses of phases present at equilibrium calculated with Thermocalc (slag system in Al-killed steel case) The separation of solid CaO is explained by the use of an excessive quantity of such species for the slag formation. The separation of solid MgO is explained by an enrichment of that species in the slag until reaching the saturation.

  • Slag - Wikipedia

    Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.Slag is usually a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide.However, slags can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals. While slags are generally used to remove waste in metal smelting, they can also serve other purposes, such as assisting in the temperature control of ...

  • white paper solidification and their effects on the steel ...

    Slag entrainment e. Erosion/corrosion lining refractory f. Chemical reaction; Indigenous inclusions are formed during cooling and solidification of steel and their types depend on the type of deoxidation. Exogenous inclusions are formed because of incidental chemical and mechanical interaction of liquid steel with its surroundings.

  • The Effect of Trace Elements on the Formation of Slag Spots ...

    The resulting Al, Si and Ca compounds form together with contaminants the slag on the molten steel. After solidification of the melt a small amount of these elements remains in the steel as tiny inclusions.

  • Inclusions In Continuous Casting Of Steel

    The evolution of macro inclusions during continuous casting was ... process which converts liquid steel into a solid product mainly in the form of slab (either thick or thin), bloom or billets. It is one of ... Inclusions in Continuous Steel Casting: Formation ...

  • Defects / Imperfections in Welds - Slag Inclusions - TWI

    Slag is normally seen as elongated lines either continuous or discontinuous along the length of the weld. This is readily identified in a radiograph, Fig 1. Slag inclusions are usually associated with the flux processes, ie MMA, FCA and submerged arc, but they can also occur in MIG welding.

  • Steel ingots and their Casting during Steelmaking – IspatGuru

    Jul 20, 2018· Fig 3 Pipe formation during solidification of liquid steel in ingot mould. Blow holes – The reason for formation of blow holes in steel ingot is the evolution of gas during solidification of the liquid steel. Entrapment of gas produces blow holes in the steel ingot. Blow holes located inside the ingot can be welded during rolling.

  • Control of Slag and Insoluble Buildup in Ladles, Melting ...

    The composition of slag varies with the type of melting process used and the type of iron or steel being melted. The cleanliness of the metallic charge, often consisting of sand-encrusted gates and risers from the casting process or rust- and dirt-encrusted scrap, significantly affects the type of slag formed during the melting operation.

  • Slag inclusions - GIESSEREILEXIKON.COM

    High-viscosity slags mostly occur in the solidified casting structure whereas low-viscosity slags rise much faster to the casting surface where the defect forms after solidification. Slag inclusions have an irregular appearance which reflects their origin and composition (e. g. treatment slags, carbide slags, melt slags).

  • Slag Inclusion In Welding - MechanicWiz.Com

    May 31, 2020· Among the welding processes, more often, the stick welding (SMAW) and flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) frequently use flux materials. In turn, these flux materials cause the creation of slag, during a step called puddle solidification.. It is essential to know that unlike a flux coating that is appropriately applied onto welded metal, slag is essentially waste material.

  • Slag inclusions - GIESSEREILEXIKON.COM

    In aluminum and magnesium alloys, slag inclusions mainly occur in the form of dross carried along during casting. Reactions between steel melt slags and mold material cannot be entirely avoided, as it is not always possible to prevent slag from being carried along during casting and to suppress slag formation during the casting process.

  • Slag Solidification Modeling Using the Scheil–Gulliver ...

    Mar 30, 2007· Sung Suk Jung, Gi Beom Kim, Il Sohn, Understanding the solidification of stainless steel slag and dust mixtures, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 10.1111/jace.14891, 100, 8, …

  • Composition Changes of Inclusions by Reaction with Slag ...

    The formation of MA spinel inclusions was reported in 1982 by Sunami et al.21)for Si-killed steel during the EAF-LF-CC process. They concluded that this phase precipitated from the entrapped slag droplets of the CaO–SiO2–Al2O3–MgO system.

  • Effect of inclusions on the solidification structures of ...

    Dec 01, 2011· The effect of oxide and nitride inclusions in a steel melt on the formation of the equiaxed grain structure during solidification of ferritic stainless steel has been investigated. The solidified grain size decreased with an increasing content of titanium.