• Ductile Iron Data - Section 3 - Part 1

    Small additions of lead reduce modularity by producing intergranular networks of "spiky" or plate-like graphite which result in dramatic reductions in tensile properties. The effect of nodularity on pearlitic Ductile Irons can be determined in Figure 3.12 and Figure 3.13 by comparing the tensile properties, at constant carbide levels, of irons ...

  • WO2012015642A2 - A composition and process for improved ...

    By adding the oxides of iron in a controlled manner using a cored wire apparatus, clogs in tundish or ladle nozzles in the steel making process are avoided and the steel flows more smoothly with...

  • Successful continuous billet casting through oxygen ...

    Left a ladle filled with a Si-killed reinforcing concrete grade, and right a ladle with an Al-killed quality grade. The relevant Celox® oxygen levels are due to the difference in deoxidation practice. As a result totally different ladle top slags form in these cases. The next figure (Fig. 2) illustrates the main difference:

  • The influence of oxide inclusions on the fluidity of Al–7 ...

    Dec 15, 2005· Recycling of aluminium alloys often increases the volume fraction of oxide inclusions and this may influence the castability of the material. In this study, the fluidity of three Al–7 wt.%Si alloys, namely a standard A356, A356 with 20% scrap addition, and A356 with 50% scrap addition, is reported.

  • Benchmarking for Process Improvement of Steel-Making at ...

    Indian Steel Industry •World crude steel production reached 1,630 million tonnes (Mt) for the Cal. year 2016, up by 0.8% compared to 2015. •India is the world's 3rd largest producer of crude steel (95.6 Mt) in Cal. Yr 2016 •The country is also the 3rd largest consumer of finished steel in the world preceded by China and the USA China World

  • Comparison of two tests to determine the castability of ...

    Comparison of two tests to determine the castability of dental alloys. Naylor WP(1), Moore BK, Phillips RW, Goodacre CJ, Munoz CA. Author information: (1)Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis. This study compared castability values in the Whitlock test with those obtained from a new castability monitor based on a dental restoration.

  • Influence of calcium content on solid ratio of inclusions ...

    Dec 01, 2006· There is an optimal range of calcium content that allows for the lique- F.M. Yuan et al, Influence of calcium content on solid ratio of inclusions in Ca-treated liquid steel 489 faction of most of the alumina. When the calcium content is less than 10 ppm, the solid ratio increased and the fluidity or castability rapidly deteriorated.

  • TruStirTM Nupro Corporation

    Clean Steel Practice Experienced operators and metallurgists recognize the importance of accurate and consistent argon gas stirring in the ladle. Clean steel and good castability depend on a consistent and gentle rinse stir. During ladle arc reheat-ing, slag line life and heating efficiency rely on an optimum medium stirring rate.

  • IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering ...

    suffering from castability issues due to difficulty in removal of fine alumina inclusions formed in later stages of refining practice. Ladle containing liquid steel is hold ideally for minimum of 10-15 minutes between argon rinsing/ladle refining station and before to start casting of liquid steel in continuous caster. During this period the

  • Clean Steel: Part Three :: Total Materia Article

    The addition of calcium to steel which contains such inclusions changes the composition of these inclusions from pure alumina to CaO-containing calcium aluminates. As it can be see from Figure 1, the, melting point of the calcium aluminates will decrease as the CaO content increases, until liquid oxide phases occur at about 22% of CaO, i.e ...

  • Influence of a Novel Master Alloy Addition on the Grain ...

    The grain refinement practice using Ti based chemical additions is well established for wrought Al alloys, especially in the last few decades. In the case of Al-Si casting alloys the practice of adding grain refiners and the impact on castability is not well established in industries. The main reason is the chemical instability of conventionally known Ti based grain refiner which reacts with ...

  • Improvementof Oastabi I and Oual of

    correct amountof calcium addition has not beenreach-ed so far. It is experimentally confirmed that phase transformation _and secondary inclusions are closely related to primary inclusions including their sizes, distributions, compositions and structures,12~ 19) Thus, deoxidation practice directly influences the castability, structure ...

  • Influence of the chemical composition on steel casting ...

    Jan 01, 2017· The steel castability is mainly influenced by the formation of solid micro-inclusions into liquid metal, and the inclusion deposition rating in the nozzle is due to the steel cleanliness. The chemical adjustment in the ladle furnace can be very accurate, as well as the desulphurization and calcium-treatment.

  • kristina - ABB

    The deslagging is made carefully and provides excellent conditions for the subsequent treatment in the ladle furnace. It contributes strongly to the effect of the ladle furnaces on the liquid steel properties: Enhanced reproducibility, clean- liness and castability. Ladle and stirrer are tilted together in the car to perform deslagging.

  • Controlling the production of compacted graphite iron ...

    Dec 01, 1998· The abruptness of the CGI-to-gray iron transition is illustrated in Fig. 1, which shows that a flake patch structure (ultimate tensile strength [UTS]: 300 MPa) in a 25 mm diameter test bar can be converted to a fully compacted microstructure (UTS: 450 MPa) with the addition of only 10 g of Mg in a 1-metric ton ladle.

  • LADLE FURNACE AND SECONDARY METALLURGY TRAINING …

    Jan 17, 2010· Ladle furnace with electric arc The various methods and processes of secondary metallurgy are frequently combinable, giving rise to precisely defined sequences ,for the production of special steel grades and for the compliance within defined tolerances of the alloying elements or additions CVS MAKINA - LF TRAINING - D.E. 20 10

  • (PDF) Development of Nozzle Clogging Index to assess the ...

    In addition to that,periodic dislodgement of clogged alumina particles lead to undue melt level fluctuations in the mold and may become an important source of non-metallic macro-inclusions in the...

  • SwePub - Influence of Ladle-slag Addit...

    The influence of ladle-slag additions on the BOF-process performance were investigated in plant trials. The aim of the study was to recycle ladle slag from secondary steelmaking to the LD-converter to save lime and improve the slag formation.

  • Rob's Web

    The degree of supersaturation is a factor that influences the Al 2 O 3 inclusion characteristics in steel. The influence of the addition of a large amount of Al in the molten steel on the formation, growth and morphology of Al 2 O 3 inclusions was investigated by laboratory scale experiments. Consecutive steel samples were taken during the deoxidation process and subjected to chemical analysis ...

  • Synthetic Slag for Secondary Steelmaking – IspatGuru

    Mar 28, 2017· One of the possibilities for influencing the slag regime is the application of synthetic slags to the ladle slag, formed from slag-making additions during the liquid steel tapping. Synthetic slag practice during secondary steelmaking maximizes the efficiency of the steel refining process by (i) improving steel quality, (ii) improving ...

  • DESULPHURIZATION OF STEEL AND PIG IRON

    informations on the effectiveness of the pig iron ladle metallurgy desulphurisation.This is realised using soda, calcium carbonate, lime and metallic magnesia. The effect of the pig iron desulphurisation with the mixture of highly sintered lime and metallic magnesia, in proportion 7:3 performed in the ladle …

  • Influence of the Continuous Casting Machine Type on IF ...

    Casting with the use of electromagnetic slag detectors at the ladle outlet Casting with a constant speed of 1.1 m/minute Figure 6: Castability of IF-Steel Figure 6 is an illustration of the effects of these metallurgical measures on the castability of the steels using a 4-ladle sequence as a typical example.

  • Influence of Ladle-slag Additions on BOF-Process ...

    In the second campaign, a development of the approach was made to suite a normal production practice. More specifically, the ladle slag was added through the weight-hopper system and implemented in the process-control system. In this way, the lime additions were reduced automatically by approximately 260 kg per heat.

  • Ashok Kamaraj - Scientist - National Metallurgical ...

    This paper mainly discusses the influence of slag carry over on melting practice (de-oxidation practice), ferro-alloy consumption at ladle furnace and castability of steel.

  • Castability Control in Metal Casting via Fluidity Measures ...

    Apr 15, 2017· Castability Control in Metal Casting via Fluidity Measures: ... 7. Similarly, high levels of strontium and grain refiner addition had relatively little impact on fluidity. This is particularly noteworthy, as strontium is known to have a major influence on melt viscosity; thus fluidity ... popularity of modeling techniques in industrial practice ...

  • Influence of Ladle-slag Additions on BOF-Process Parameters

    The influence of ladle-slag additions on the BOF-process performance were investigated in plant trials. The aim of the study was to recycle ladle slag from secondary steelmaking to the LD-converter to save lime and improve the slag formation.

  • Improvement in Castability of Al Killed Steel in Billet ...

    Sticking of alumina as well as spinel inclusions inside the sub entry nozzles (SEN) as well as tundish nozzle is perennial problem during continuous casting of aluminum killed steel through billet casters. This results in restriction or completely blockage of flow of liquid steel through the nozzles eventually leading to abortion of sequence in billet casters and stopping of continuous casting ...

  • Services on Demand - SciELO - Scientific Electronic ...

    A steel containing inclusions consisting of pure alumina has only a moderate castability. Castability deteriorates drastically at the start of conversion of inclusions into calcium aluminates. Only when the first liquid phases occur, i.e., at calcium to total oxygen ratio of approximately 0.4, does castability improve.

  • INFLUENCE OF PROCESS PARAMETERS ON CASTABILITY AT …

    castability declines as the density of polystyrene (ρ p) in-creases and that the castability improves as the tempera-ture of the melt pouring increases. Figure 6 shows the influence of the melt pouring tem-perature and the polystyrene specimens’ density on the length of the cast specimens, for casting without a …

  • TruStir ladle stir control - Process Tech, Slag Detection ...

    Clean Steel Practice. Experienced operators and metallurgists recognize the importance of accurate and consistent argon gas stirring in The ladle. Clean steel and good castability depend on a consistent and gentle rinse stir. During ladle arc reheating, slag line life and heating efficiency rely on an optimum medium stirring rate.

  • (PDF) Inclusion Evolution and Removal in Ladle Refining ...

    deoxidation practice and strong stirring to achieve low sulfur levels in the steel. The processing requirements for desulfurization in the ladle can influence the composition and morphology of the inclusions formed in the process. For example, Al2MgO4 spinel inclusions will readily form

  • Influence of Ladle Addition Practice on the Castability of ...

    In the present work, influence of ladle addition practice on the castability of typical low carbon low silicon steel has been investigated for a conventional thick slab caster.

  • TUNDISH NOZZLE CLOGGING – APPLICATION OF …

    Clogging of the tundish nozzle is a major castability problem in continuous casting of steel for several reasons. ... In practice, a given nozzle clog is often a combination of two or more of these types, ... In addition, ladle and tundish slag composition should be designed to have a low enough oxygen potential to absorb inclusions,

  • Influence of Ladle Addition Practice on the Castability of ...

    2 Anil Kumar et al.: Influence of Ladle Addition Practice on the Castability of Typical Low Carbon Low Silicon Steel inclusions [5, 6]. Such steels are commonly produce through three process routes viz., (a) direct route where liquid steel is sent directly for the casting just after primary deoxidation